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Nanchang km. British Council - Nanchang University Test dates are subject to availability. Changsha km. Hefei km. Wuhan University Wuhan University, located by the beautiful Luojia Mountain in the city of Wuhan, is a comprehensive and key national university under the direct administration of the Ministry of Education of China. In the process of development and evolution, the institute changed its name for several times before it was finally named National Wuhan University in and became one of the earliest national universities in modern China.
It was founded as a specialty school to train foreign language speakers, with the mission to cope with the increasing national demand for bilingual workforce in such sectors as foreign affairs, international trade and diplomacy. WFLS has since transformed into a comprehensive secondary school, retaining the heritage of a strong curriculum in foreign languages and cultures. The University is a top 10 Chinese University, with over 50, students in total, and over international students studying a wide range of degree and non-degree programs.
China's high-speed rail expansion is entirely managed, planned and financed by the Chinese government. On one hand, the demand of high-speed rail in China steadily increases over time. The safety issue that drew the attention of the public and the government was the Wenzhou train collision which happened on July 23, , in which 40 people died, were injured, and 54 related officials blamed and punished. He complained about the disparity between the construction plan and actual construction schedule. The data, however, tells a different story. Besides safety, several experts expressed concern of the network's operational efficiency.
Suppliers and manufacturers blame each other for any problem detected in the trial operation, while tracking the construction process to every single detail is an almost impossible job for inspectors. Despite having the second largest route-kilometer growth after Turkey since ,  there has been debate on constructing a vast high-speed railway network across China is economically efficient. Conservative scholars and officials are worried about the profitability of high-speed railway construction.
While a number of high-speed railways in eastern China have started to be operationally profitable since , the high speed railways in the midwest are constantly loss-making. Zhengzhou—Xi'an high-speed railway is estimated to run 59 trains in and trains in , yet in there are merely around 30 trains on operation, causing a 1.
Guizhou—Guangxi railway and Lanzhou—Xinjiang railway are both suffering from high maintenance cost due to harsh climate conditions and complicated terrain structure. Critics both in China and abroad have questioned the necessity of having an expensive high-speed rail system in a largely developing country, where most workers cannot afford to pay a premium for faster travel. HSR provides fast, reliable and comfortable means of transporting large numbers of travelers in a densely populated country over long distances,   which:. China's high-speed rail construction projects are highly capital intensive.
As of , the CRIC-bonds are considered to be relatively safe investments because they are backed by assets the railways and implicitly by the government. Despite impressive ridership figures, virtually every completed line has incurred losses in its first years of operation. For example, the Beijing—Tianjin intercity railway in its two full years of operation, delivered over 41 million rides.
In the second year, ridership rose to In the first three quarters of , the line lost Y1. The MOR faces a debt-repayment peak in Overall, ridership is growing as the high-speed rail network continues to expand. High-speed rail is also becoming relatively more affordable as fares have remained stable while worker wages have grown sharply over the same period. Currently, China's high-speed rail service costs significantly less than similar systems in other developed countries, but is considerably more expensive than conventional rail service. The spread of high-speed rail has forced domestic airlines in China to slash airfare and cancel regional flights.
China's high-speed railway network is by far the longest in the world. According to a World Bank publication on Chinese HSR, by the end of "the length of — kph lines was about 10, km, and the length of — kph lines was about 15, km. The centerpiece of China's expansion into high-speed rail is a national high-speed rail grid consisting of mainly passenger dedicated lines that is overlaid onto the existing railway network.
They are known as passenger-designated lines PDL. In July , the state planners reorganized the national HSR network—including HSR lines in operation, under construction and under planning—into eight vertical and eight horizontal high speed rail "passageways", almost doubling the network. Eight Verticals .
Eight Horizontals . Intercity railways are designed to provide regional high-speed rail service between large cities and metropolitan areas that are generally within the same province. They are built with the approval of the central government but are financed and operated largely by local governments with limited investment and oversight from the China Rail Corporation. Some intercity lines run parallel to other high-speed rail lines but serve more stations along the route.
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Some high speed trains also continue on or run over connecting segments of upgraded conventional lines. China Railway is the successor of the former Ministry of Railways. Ministry held the power drafting policy on railroad transposition, development of the rail network and rail infrastructure in China. Nowadays, China Railway no longer decides the railway policy, instead focus on the development of the rail network and rail infrastructure in China.
China Railway assumed control of complete railway network that was built by the dissolved Ministry of Railways. In October , CRH service more than 1, trains per day, with a daily ridership of about , China Railway reports the number of passengers carried by high-speed EMU train sets and this figure is frequently reported as high-speed ridership, even though this figure includes passengers from EMU trains providing sub-high speed service.
In , China Railway operated 3, In , annual ridership on EMU train sets, which encompasses officially defined high-speed rail service as well as certain sub-high-speed service routes, accounted for about two-thirds of all regional rail trips not including urban trains in China. CRH trainsets are intended to provide fast and convenient travel between cities.
Some of the Hexie Hao train sets are manufactured locally through technology transfer, a key requirement for China. The signalling, track and support structures, control software, and station design are developed domestically with foreign elements as well.
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By , the truck system as a whole is predominantly Chinese. However, these patents are only valid within China, and as such hold no international power. The trial was the first dynamic operation of the prototype on the 1. According to CRRC , by the end of , five high-speed maglev test vehicles will be built.
Comprehensive planning and repeated tests are required before it could finally be put into commercial operation, which could take years. China aims to put a km-long high-speed maglev line into commercial use by Many of the Passenger Designated Lines use ballastless tracks , which allow for smoother train rides at high speeds and can withstand heavy use without warping.
The ballastless track technology, imported from Germany, carries higher upfront costs but can reduce maintenance costs.
In mid , China has signed up to design a high-speed railway between the Russian cities of Moscow and Kazan, one of the first concrete examples of the new business with China that Russian officials have been pursuing with renewed vigor since falling out with the West. A unit of Russia's state-owned JSC Russian Railways signed a contract Thursday with the design unit of China's state-controlled China Railway Group to come up with the plans for a kilometer high-speed rail between the two Russian cities.
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The Chinese firm will work alongside two Russian companies for on the designs for a total cost of Once the designs are developed, a separate tender will be held for the actual construction of the rail link, which Russian Railways expects to cost 1. Although both classified as high-speed rail, the Shanghai Maglev often is not counted as part of the national high-speed rail network, while XRL is fully integrated into the national network of the CRH.
China has the world's only commercial maglev high-speed train line in operation. The Shanghai Maglev Train , a turnkey Transrapid maglev demonstration line There have been numerous attempts to extend the line without success. A Shanghai-Hangzhou maglev line was also initially discussed but later shelved in favour of conventional high-speed rail.
The completion dates are and The "fastest" train commercial service can be defined alternatively by a train's top speed or average trip speed. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For rail transport in China generally, see Rail transport in China.
The Differences Between Chinese and Western Railways
The scope of this article is restricted to high-speed rail in Mainland China and Hong Kong unless otherwise stated. High-speed rail trains in China. Chinese designed Fuxing train departing Beijing South railway station. Shanghai Maglev Train connecting the Pudong Airport with the city. Main article: Campaign to raise the speed of railway travel in China.
High-speed rail service on the Guangzhou—Shenzhen Railway. The Xinshisu trainset was shipped back to Sweden in In , the Guangshen Railway became the first in the country to have four tracks, allowing faster passenger train traffic on dedicated tracks third and fourth from the right to be separated from slower freight traffic on tracks second and fifth from the right. High-speed trains in China before the CRH series. The China Railways SS8 Shaoshan 8 electric locomotive was produced from to and provided sub-high-speed rail service.
The DJJ1 trains were transferred to lines in southwest China in The train operated in commercially on conventional rail lines in southwest China from to First generation of CRH train sets. Bombardier Regina.